Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1598-6721(Print)
ISSN : 2288-0771(Online)
The Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers Vol.17 No.6 pp.130-135

Heat Generation and Machining Accuracy According to Material for Ultra-Precision Machining

Gyung-Il Lee*, Jae-Yeol Kim*#, Dong-Gi Lee*
*Department of Mechanical System & Automotive Engineering, Chosun University, 375 Seoseok-dong, Dong-gu, Gwang-Ju South Korea, 501-759.
Corresponding Author : Tel: +82-53-581-2239, Fax: +82-53-581-2295
17/09/2018 27/09/2018 02/10/2018


Currently the automobile market is developing eco-friendly vehicles in order to cope with fuel efficiency regulations. Many studies have been conducted to improve travel performance and fuel economy of the environment-friendly vehicles, and vehicle manufacturers study how to manufacture light-weight vehicles for improving fuel economy for both existing vehicles and environment-friendly vehicles. Exemplary light-weight vehicle technologies include optimal design of vehicle body structure which is a light-weight vehicle method by changing component shapes or layout to optimize the vehicle body structureand the new process technology for using new light-weight and very strong materials Various studies.

차량 경량화를 위한 이종소재 접합 연구

이 경일*, 김 재열*#, 이 동기*
*조선대학교 기계시스템‧미래자동차공학부


    Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy

    © The Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers. All rights reserved.

    This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    1. Introduction

    Currently, the automotive industry is researching and developing environment-friendly vehicles to cope with intensifying regulations for fuel economy and exhaust gases. Many studies are being conducted to improve driving performance and fuel economy, and carmakers are researching lightweight vehicles to improve the fuel economy of both conventional and environment-friendly vehicles. There are various lightweight technologies, including the optimal design of the body structure, which optimizes the body structure of vehicles by changing the shape or layout of parts, and new process technology that uses lightweight, high-strength materials rather than conventional materials. This study investigates the dissimilar material bonding of ultra-high-tensile-strength steel and aluminum for lightweight vehicles.

    2. Dissimilar Material Bonding

    2.1 Materials and Methods of Dissimilar Material Bonding

    Various dissimilar material bonding methods are being considered, such as aluminum bonding. Among them, the automotive industry is applying self-piercing riveting (SPR) and blind-rivet bonding, which are mechanical bonding methods, for dissimilar material bonding. They are also applying adhesives to complement the peel-off load, which is insufficient in rivet bonding, and static load, which lasts for a long time.

    For analysis of the dissimilar material bonding field, adhesive bonding can be implemented using ANSYS DYNA, which is a universal finite element program, and SPR bonding can be analyzed using ANSYS DYNA and Deform2D[113].

    For dissimilar material bonding in this study, SPR, blind-rivet bonding, and a hybrid bonding method that combines adhesive bonding and riveting are applied, as shown in Fig. 1; the materials are listed in Table 1.

    2.2 Analysis of Dissimilar Material Bonding

    The materials used in this study for the analysis of dissimilar material bonding were hot-stamping materials, which encounter difficulties in mechanical bonding and require condition selection through bonding analysis. As shown in Fig. 2, SPR and blind riveting were analyzed using finite element analysis. The SPR analysis results show that although bonding was possible, the interlock formation, which affects the bonding strength, was not good. Additionally, a gap between the materials was generated due to the elastic recovery around the bonding part resulting from the plastic change of hot stamping, which is an ultra-high-strength material, thus decreasing the bonding strength. In the case of the blind-rivet method, there was no effect on material strength because bonding is carried out after hole processing, and the strength was compared through analytical simulation using ANSYS, as shown in Fig. 3.

    In the results of the mechanical bonding analysis, the bonding method using blind riveting and a bonding agent simultaneously showed the highest strength.

    3. Jig Design and Fabrication of Specimens for Dissimilar Material Bonding

    To produce identical specimens because the bonding strength varies depending on the overlapping area, a clamp was applied to prevent material movement during bonding, as shown in Fig. 4. The specimens were designed and fabricated to allow 100×30mm overlaps in accordance with KS B0851.

    Pre-Hole was applied for blind riveting and Ashland Pliogrip5760B for adhesive bonding. The SPR was bonded using the SPR equipment of Atlas Copco Korea. Fig. 5 shows the fabricated specimen. Three types of specimens, that is, ultra-high-tensile-strength steel+aluminum (SABC1479+Al5083), high-tension steel+aluminum (SGARC780+Al5083), and galvanized steel+aluminum (SGACEN+Al5083), were fabricated by the bonding methods (SPR, hybrid SPR, blind riveting, hybrid blind riveting, and adhesive bonding).

    4. Dissimilar Material Bonding Strength Test

    4.1 Materials and Methods of Dissimilar Material Bonding

    A shear tension test was carried out to measure the bonding strength at the testing speed of 2 mm/min. According to the test results, which are shown in Fig. 6, in the SABC1470+Al5083 combination, the hybrid blind method (blind rivet + bonding agent) showed the highest strength at 12.51 KN. The reason that hybrid SPR bonding had lower strength than the other method is that, although SPR bonding was performed, it was difficult to secure strength due to the spring-back phenomenon of the top plate and the incomplete interlock inside it. Therefore, the hybrid blind bonding method appears to be the best bonding method for SABC1470. Fig. 7 shows the bonding strength of each case, and Table 2 summarizes the bonding strengths.

    In a comparison of the correlation between the experiment and analysis results of SPR, similar patterns were observed and the possibility of bonding was confirmed. However, it was impossible to apply this to the car body due to the bending of the base metal.

    A comparison of the blind-rivet strength between the analysis and experiment revealed similar fracture shapes. The strength error was 2.13% at maximum, thus confirming the reliability of blind joint analysis.

    4.2 Salt-Water Spray Test and Durability Analysis of Dissimilar Material Bonding

    Ultra-high-tension steel+aluminum bonding requires a review of corrosion because of galvanic corrosion from the potential difference between metals. Thus, a corrosion test was conducted with salt-water spray.

    The salt-water spray test of dissimilar material bonding was carried out in accordance with the KS D 9502 standard. A 5% salt-water solution was sprayed for 48 hours at 0.1MPa pressure and then dried for 30 min, before a shear tensile test was conducted. Fig. 8 shows the salt-water spray test and specimen setting.

    When the appearance was compared between prior to and after the salt-water spray test for 48 hours, the corrosion reaction was the largest in SGACEN, followed by SGARC780 and SABC1470. SABC1470 did not meet the durability requirement because the bonding was separated due to rivet corrosion during the salt-water spray test in a specimen bonded with SPR alone. SGARC 780 shows a 12% strength reduction rate when SPR and adhesive bonding were used together. It was confirmed that hybrid B showed an insignificant corrosion effect.

    Fig. 9 shows the salt-water test results, and the SPR separation phenomenon is shown in Fig. 10. Table 3 outlines the strength changes after the salt-water spray test for each bonding method.

    5. Results and Discussion

    This study investigated ultra-high-tensile-strength steel and aluminum dissimilar material bonding for a lightweight car body and verified the possibility of applying this bonding method to the car body by testing the strength of different bonding methods.

    1. According to the results of the dissimilar material bonding analysis and tests, in the ultra-high-tensile-strength steel and aluminum bonding, the hybrid B bonding method using blind riveting and adhesive bonding showed the highest bonding strength. The analysis and test showed similar fracture shapes, and the maximum strength error was 2.13%, thus verifying the reliability of the blind bonding analysis.

    2. According to the results of the salt-water spray test and strength analysis for dissimilar material bonding, the hybrid B bonding method showed greater strength and durability than SPR.


    This research was funded and conducted under 「the Competency Development Program for Industry Specialists」 of the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), operated by Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT).

    (No. N0002092, HRD program for 2018 Development of Advanced Designers for Highly-reliable Mechanical Components)


    Sections by mechanical bonding
    Springback Phenomenon by SPR bonding
    Bonding test analysis modeling and result
    Mechanical bonding Jigs for specimen production
    Multi-material bonding specimens
    SPR measured bonding strength for SPR bonding methods
    Comparison of bonding strength for each case
    Salt spray test
    Salt spray test result
    SABC1470 salt spray test result


    Bonding materials
    Joint strength per case
    Strength Change after Salt Water Spray test


    1. Kim, J. Y., Lee, H. N., Kwac, L. K, Han, J. H., Cho, Y. T., Jun, C. G., "Control Performance Evaluation of Ultra Precision Positioning Apparatus," Proc. ISIM 2000 , pp. 252-255., 2000.
    2. Kim, J. Y., Park, D. K., Lee, G. I., Gao, J. C., “Research on the Design of the Ultra-high-precision Positioning Control Error Compensation,” IJPEM, pp. 1351 ~ 1358, 2016.
    3. Kim, J. Y., Han, J. H., Kim, H. W., You, S., Kwac, L. K, Song, I. S, “A Study on the Optimal Structural Design and Ultra Precision Position Control using FEM for Micro Stage,” KSPE pp. 336 ~ 340, 2001.
    4. Lee, G. L., and Kim, J. Y., Yoon, S. U., Jung, Y. S., “Assessment of soundness by applying of Optimal design hybrid CURVIC gear and IRT technique,” Journal of Advanced Engineering and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 309-314, 2016.
    5. Lee, G. L., and Kim, J. Y., Gao, J. C., Jung, Y. S., “Study of Heat Generation and Cutting Accuracy depending on Spindle Rotation Speed Change in Ultra-precision Cutting Using ECTS,” IJPEM, pp. 265-269, 2018.
    6. Lee, G. I., Kim, J. Y., “Evaluation of Reliability of Large Hybrid Curvic Gear by Using Thermography,” Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 146-152, 2017.
    7. Kim, S. Y., Kim, K. S., “A Study on Radiation Noise of Vehicle Power Seat Recliner using Finite Element Analysis,” Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, Vol.17, No. 1, pp. 101-107, 2018.
    8. Sim, K. J., Moon, H. J., Jeon, N. J., “A Study on the Development of the Driveshaft for a 3.5-Ton Commercial Vehicle,” Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 153-159, 2018.
    9. Geyl, R., "Design and Farication of Three Mirror Flat Field Anastigmat for High Resolution Earth Observation," SPIE, Vol.2210, pp.739-745, 1994.
    10. Shiraishi, M., Uehara, K., "In-Process Control of Workpiece Dimension in Turning," Annal of The CIRP, Vol. 28, pp.333~337, 1979.
    11. Kohno, T., Okazaki, Y., Ozawa, N., Mitui, K. and Omoda, M., "In-Process Measurement and a Work-pice Referenced Form Accuracy Control System(WORFAC):Concept of the Method and Preliminary Experiment," JSPE, Vol. 11 No.1, pp.9-11, 1989.
    12. Patterson, S. R., Matgab, E. B., "Design and Testing of a Fast Tool Servo for Diamond Turing," JSPE, Vol. 7, No.3,pp.123-128, 1985.
    13. Donaldson, P. R., Patterson, S. R., "Desing and Construction of a Large, vertical Axis iamond Turning Machine.", Proc. SPIE, Vol. 433, pp.62-67, 1983.